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Hamadryas Baboon

Hamadryas Baboon Video

Hamadryas Baboon

Hamadryas Baboon
All images are Hamadryas Baboons at South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Dalton-in-Furness, UK
© theanimalfiles.com

Hamadryas Baboon Range Map (Africa & Arabian Peninsula)
Hamadryas Baboon Range Map
(Africa & Arabian Peninsula)
Latin Name Papio hamadryas
Conservation Status Near Threatened
Location Africa & Arabian Peninsula
Colour Grey or Olive Brown
Length 75 cm (29.5 inches)
Tail 55 cm (21.7 inches)
Weight 12 - 21 Kg (26 - 46 lbs)
Life Expectancy 35 Yrs

Main Characteristics

Hamadryas Baboons have a body length of 75 cms (29.5 inches), a tail length of 55 cms (21.7 inches) and they weigh between 12 and 21 kgs (26 - 46 lbs). Males are often twice the size of females.

Males are silver/grey in colour and they have a long shoulder cape where as females are olive brown in colour and they lack a mane or shoulder cape. They skin on their face and rump is pink in both sexes.

Hamadryas Baboons are active during the day and they are mainly found on the ground. They move around on all four limbs (quadrupedally).


Hamadryas Baboons are found in the semi-desert, savannas and rocky areas of Somalia, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia and Yemen (approximate range map is on the right). They require a water source nearby and they live at altitudes up to 2,600 m (8,530 ft).

They have a unusual multi level social system that consists of clans, bands and troops. Several families form a clan, several clans form a band and several bands form a troop. Unlike other baboons, males stay with the same clan for life and one male will dominate and defend a harem of up to 10 females.

Young males will acquire a harem by befriending immature females that are of little interest to the dominant male. Males will try and forcefully steal females from other bands but they will not steal from their own clan.


Hamadryas Baboons are omnivores and they feed on grasses, roots, nuts, fruits, roots, tubers, invertebrates, small birds and small mammals.


Hamadryas Baboons breed through out the year and after a gestation period of 165 - 174 days, 1 infant is born. At birth the young baboon weighs 600 - 900 g (21 - 32 oz) and they are black in colour. They are dependent on their mother for the first few months until weaning begins at 6 months old.

They become independent at 2 years of age and females reach sexual maturity at 4 years old, giving birth every second year thereafter. Males reach sexual maturity at 4 - 6 years of age.


The main predators of Hamadryas Baboons are lions and leopards.

Interesting Facts

Hamadryas Baboons are also known as:
Sacred Baboon

Hamadryas Baboons were a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians as the attendant of Thoth, hence their other name of Sacred Baboon.

Similar Animals

Olive Baboon
Guinea Baboon
Yellow Baboon
Chacma Baboon


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